forensic gait analysis services
forensic gait analysis services


Aqmar MR, Fujihara Y, Makihara Y, Yagi Y. Gait recognition by fluctuations. Computer Vision and Image Understanding. 2014;126:38-52.


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Badiye A, Kathane P, Krishan K. Forensic Gait Analysis. 2020.


Bashir K, Xiang T, Gong S. Gait recognition without subject cooperation. Pattern Recognition Letters. 2010;31(13):2052-60.


Birch I, Birch M, Lall J. The accuracy and validity of the Sheffield Features of Gait Tool. Science & Justice. 2020; 61(1);72-78.


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Birch I, Birch M, Rutler L, Brown S, Burgos LR, Otten B, et al. The repeatability and reproducibility of the Sheffield Features of Gait Tool. Science & Justice. 2019; 59(5):544-51.


Birch I, Birch T, Bray D. The identification of emotions from gait. Sci Justice. 2016;56(5):351-6.


Birch I, Gwinnett C, Walker J. Aiding the interpretation of forensic gait analysis: Development of a features of gait database. Science & Justice. 2016;56(6):426-30.


Birch I, Gwinnett C, Walker J. Aiding the interpretation of forensic gait analysis: Development of a features of gait database. Science and justice. 2018;58(1):78-82.


Birch I, Nirenberg M, Vernon W, Birch M. Forensic Gait Analysis: Principles and Practice: CRC Press; 2020.


Birch I, Raymond L, Christou A, Fernando MA, Harrison N, Paul F. The identification of individuals by observational gait analysis using closed circuit television footage. Sci Justice. 2013;53(3):339-42.


Birch I, Vernon W, Burrow G, Walker J. The effect of frame rate on the ability of experienced gait analysts to identify characteristics of gait from closed circuit television footage. Sci Justice. 2014;54(2):159-63.


Birch I, Vernon W, Walker J, Saxelby J. The development of a tool for assessing the quality of closed circuit camera footage for use in forensic gait analysis. J Forensic Leg Med. 2013;20(7):915-7.


Birch I, Vernon W, Walker J, Young M. Terminology and forensic gait analysis. Sci Justice. 2015;55(4):279-84.


Borel S, Schneider P, Newman CJ. Video analysis software increases the interrater reliability of video gait assessments in children with cerebral palsy. Gait Posture. 2011;33(4):727-9.


Bouchrika I, Goffredo M, Carter J, Nixon M. On using gait in forensic biometrics. Journal of forensic sciences. 2011;56(4):882-9.


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Choudhury SD, Tjahjadi T. Silhouette-based gait recognition using Procrustes shape analysis and elliptic Fourier descriptors. Pattern Recognition. 2012; 45(9):3414-26.


Choudhury SD, Tjahjadi T. Gait recognition based on shape and motion analysis of silhouette contours. Computer Vision and Image Understanding. 2013;117(12): 1770-85.


Choudhury SD, Tjahjadi T. Robust view-invariant multiscale gait recognition. Pattern Recognition. 2015;48(3):798-811.


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Cunado D, Nixon MS, Carter JN. Automatic extraction and description of human gait models for recognition purposes. Computer Vision and Image Understanding. 2003;90(1):1-41.


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DiMaggio JA, Vernon W. Forensic podiatry: principles and methods. New York London: Humana; 2011.


Foster JP, Nixon MS, Prügel-Bennett A. Automatic gait recognition using area-based metrics. Pattern Recognition Letters. 2003;24(14):2489-97.


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Gor-García-Fogeda MD, Cano de la Cuerda R, Carratalá Tejada M, Alguacil-Diego IM, Molina-Rueda F. Observational Gait Assessments in People With Neurological Disorders: A Systematic Review. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 2016;97(1):131-40.


Gross MM, Crane EA, Fredrickson BL. Effort-Shape and kinematic assessment of bodily expression of emotion during gait. Human movement science. 2012; 31(1):202-21.


Guest R, Miguel-Hurtado O, Stevenage S, Black S. Exploring the relationship between stride, stature and hand size for forensic assessment. Journal of forensic and legal medicine. 2017;52:46-55.


Hayfron-Acquah JB, Nixon MS, Carter JN. Automatic gait recognition by symmetry analysis. Pattern Recognition Letters. 2003;24(13):2175-83.


Hossain MA, Makihara Y, Wang J, Yagi Y. Clothing-invariant gait identification using part-based clothing categorization and adaptive weight control. Pattern Recognition. 2010;43(6):2281-91.


Huang PS, Harris CJ, Nixon MS. Recognising humans by gait via parametric canonical space. Artificial Intelligence in Engineering. 1999;13(4):359-66.


Imoto D, Hirabayashi M, Honma M, Kurosawa K. Enhancing the robustness of forensic gait analysis against near-distance viewing direction differences. Multimedia Tools and Applications. 2022:1-23.


Iwashita Y, Stoica A, Kurazume R. Gait identification using shadow biometrics. Pattern Recognition Letters. 2012;33(16):2148-55.


Jung S-U, Nixon MS. Heel strike detection based on human walking movement for surveillance analysis. Pattern Recognition Letters. 2013;34(8):895-902.


Kastaniotis D, Theodorakopoulos I, Theoharatos C, Economou G, Fotopoulos S. A framework for gait-based recognition using Kinect. Pattern Recognition Letters.


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Kirtley C. Clinical gait analysis: theory and practice. Edinburgh London Oxford: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2006.


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Kusakunniran W, Wu Q, Zhang J, Li H. Gait recognition across various walking speeds using higher order shape configuration based on a differential composition model. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Part B (Cybernetics). 2012;42(6):1654-68.


Larsen PK, Simonsen EB, Lynnerup N. Gait analysis in forensic medicine. J Forensic Sci. 2008;53(5):1149-53.


Lee D, Soon J, Choi G, Kim K, Bahn S. Identification of the Visually Prominent Gait Parameters for Forensic Gait Analysis. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2022;19(4):2467.


Le Grand AM, Neuschatz JS, Golding JM, Jenkins BD, Cutler BL. A Step Too Far: The Problems with Forensic Gait Analysis.  Advances in Psychology and Law: Springer; 2022. p. 89-109.


Levine D, Richards J, Whittle MW. Whittle's gait analysis: Elsevier Health Sciences; 2012.


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Lu J, Zhang E. Gait recognition for human identification based on ICA and fuzzy SVM through multiple views fusion. Pattern Recognition Letters. 2007;28(16):2401-11.


Ludwig O, Dillinger S, Marschall F. Intra-individual gait pattern variability in specific situations: Implications for forensic gait analysis. Forensic science international. 2016;264:15-23.


Lynnerup N, Vedel J. Person identification by gait analysis and photogrammetry. J Forensic Sci. 2005;50(1):112-8.


MacLin MK, Downs C, MacLin OH, Caspers HM. The effect of defendant facial expression on mock juror decision-making: The power of remorse. North American Journal of Psychology. 2009;11(2):323-32.


Macoveciuc I, Rando CJ, Borrion H. Forensic gait analysis and recognition: standards of evidence admissibility. Journal of forensic sciences. 2019;64(5):1294-303.


Mahfouf Z, Merouani HF, Bouchrika I, Harrati N. Investigating the use of Motion-based Features from Optical Flow for Gait Recognition. Neurocomputing. 2017.


Makihara Y, Sagawa R, Mukaigawa Y, Echigo T, Yagi Y, editors. Gait recognition using a view transformation model in the frequency domain. European Conference on Computer Vision; 2006: Springer.


Matovski DS, Nixon MS, Mahmoodi S, Carter JN. The effect of time on gait recognition performance. IEEE transactions on information forensics and security. 2012;7(2):543-52.


Mayer NH. The use of digital video recording for observational analysis of gait. Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 2002;16(2):179.


Menant JC, Steele JR, Menz HB, Munro BJ, Lord SR. Effects of walking surfaces and footwear on temporo-spatial gait parameters in young and older people. Gait & posture. 2009;29(3):392-7.


Moorthy T, Baskaran M. Challenge to forensic podiatry crime scene report: Footprint-based gait analysis in homicide case revealed the perpetrator as the deceased victim's wife who was also the complainant. 2022.


Montepare JM, Goldstein SB, Clausen A. The identification of emotions from gait information. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior. 1987;11(1):33-42.


Naugle KM, Joyner J, Hass CJ, Janelle CM. Emotional influences on locomotor behavior. Journal of biomechanics. 2010;43(16):3099-103.


Nirenberg M, Vernon W, Birch I. A review of the historical use and criticisms of gait analysis evidence. Science & Justice. 2018;58(4):292-8.


Nixon MS, Carter JN, Shutler JD, Grant MG. New advances in automatic gait recognition. Information Security Technical Report. 2002;7(4):23-35.


Perry J. Gait analysis. Downey, California: Los Amigos Research & Education Center; 2002.


Rathinam C, Bateman A, Peirson J, Skinner J. Observational gait assessment tools in paediatrics - A systematic review. Gait & Posture. 2014;40(2):279-85.


Reel S, Rouse S, Obe WV, Doherty P. Estimation of stature from static and dynamic footprints. Forensic science international. 2012;219(1):283. e1-. e5.


Reid S, Held JM, Lawrence S. Reliability and validity of the Shaw gait assessment tool for temporospatial gait assessment in people with hemiparesis. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation. 2011;92(7):1060-5.


Roy A, Sural S, Mukherjee J. A hierarchical method combining gait and phase of motion with spatiotemporal model for person re-identification. Pattern Recognition Letters. 2012;33(14):1891-901.


The Royal Society and the Royal Society of Edinburgh. Forensic gait analysis: a primer for courts. London: The Royal Society; 2017.


Sarkar S, Phillips PJ, Liu Z, Vega IR, Grother P, Bowyer KW. The humanid gait challenge problem: Data sets, performance, and analysis. IEEE transactions on pattern analysis and machine intelligence. 2005;27(2):162-77.


Seckiner D, Mallett X, Maynard P, Meuwly D, Roux C. Forensic gait analysis—Morphometric assessment from surveillance footage. Forensic science international. 2019;296:57-66.


Seckiner D, Mallett X, Roux C, Gittelson S, Maynard P, Meuwly D. Forensic interpretation framework for body and gait analysis: feature extraction, frequency and distinctiveness. Australian Journal of Forensic Sciences. 2023:1-17.


Seckiner D, Mallett X, Roux C, Meuwly D, Maynard P. Forensic image analysis-CCTV distortion and artefacts. Forensic science international. 2018.


Stevenage SV, Nixon MS, Vince K. Visual analysis of gait as a cue to identity. Applied Cognitive Psychology. 1999;13(6):513-26.


Sulovská K, Fišerová E, Chvosteková M, Adámek M. Appropriateness of gait analysis for biometrics: Initial study using FDA method. Measurement. 2017;105:1-10.


Tao D, Li X, Maybank SJ, Wu X, editors. Human carrying status in visual surveillance. 2006 IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR'06); 2006: IEEE.


Thies SB, Richardson JK, Ashton-Miller JA. Effects of surface irregularity and lighting on step variability during gait:: A study in healthy young and older women. Gait & posture. 2005;22(1):26-31.


Toro B, Nester CJ, Farren PC. Inter-and intraobserver repeatability of the Salford Gait Tool: an observation-based clinical gait assessment tool. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation. 2007;88(3):328-32.


Toro B, Nester CJ, Farren PC. The development and validity of the Salford Gait Tool: an observation-based clinical gait assessment tool. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation. 2007;88(3):321-7.


Troje NF. Decomposing biological motion: A framework for analysis and synthesis of human gait patterns. Journal of Vision. 2002;2(5):371-87.


Troje NF, Westhoff C, Lavrov M. Person identification from biological motion: Effects of structural and kinematic cues. Perception & Psychophysics. 2005;67(4):667-75.


Tsuji A, Makihara Y, Yagi Y, editors. Silhouette transformation based on walking speed for gait identification. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR), 2010 IEEE Conference on; 2010: IEEE.


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Van Mastrigt NM, Celie K, Mieremet AL, Ruifrok AC, Geradts Z. Critical review of the use and scientific basis of forensic gait analysis. Forensic sciences research. 2018;3(3):183-93.


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Yam C, Nixon MS, Carter JN. Automated person recognition by walking and running via model-based approaches. Pattern Recognition. 2004;37(5):1057-72.


Yang SX, Larsen PK, Alkjaer T, Lynnerup N, Simonsen EB. Influence of velocity on variability in gait kinematics: implications for recognition in forensic science. J Forensic Sci. 2014;59(5):1242-7.


Yang SX, Larsen PK, Alkjær T, Simonsen EB, Lynnerup N. Variability and similarity of gait as evaluated by joint angles: implications for forensic gait analysis. J Forensic Sci. 2014;59(2):494-504.


Zaki MH, Sayed T. Using automated walking gait analysis for the identification of pedestrian attributes. Transportation research part C: emerging technologies. 2014;48:16-36.


Zhang R, Vogler C, Metaxas D. Human gait recognition at sagittal plane. Image and vision computing. 2007;25(3):321-30.


Zheng S, Huang K, Tan T, Tao D. A cascade fusion scheme for gait and cumulative foot pressure image recognition. Pattern Recognition. 2012;45(10):3603-10.

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